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|Título:||PAH air pollution at a Portuguese urban area: carcinogenic risks and sources identification|
Pires, J. C. M.
Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M.
Pereira, Maria do Carmo
|Palavras-chave:||Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)|
Cluster analysis (CA)
Principal component analysis (PCA)
Linear regression models
|Relatório da Série N.º:||Environmental Science and Pollution Research; Vol. 20, Issue 6|
|Resumo:||This study aimed to characterize air pollution and the associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) at an urban site, to identify possible emission sources of PAHs using several statistical methodologies, and to analyze the influence of other air pollutants and meteorological variables on PAH concentrations.The air quality and meteorological data were collected in Oporto, the second largest city of Portugal. Eighteen PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were collected daily for 24 h in air (gas phase and in particles) during 40 consecutive days in November and December 2008 by constant low-flow samplers and using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane filters for particulate (PM10 and PM2.5 bound) PAHs and pre-cleaned polyurethane foam plugs for gaseous compounds. The other monitored air pollutants were SO2, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3; the meteorological variables were temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, total precipitation, and solar radiation. Benzo[a]pyrene reached a mean concentration of 2.02 ngm−3, surpassing the EU annual limit value. The target carcinogenic risks were equal than the health-based guideline level set by USEPA (10−6) at the studied site, with the cancer risks of eight PAHs reaching senior levels of 9.98×10−7 in PM10 and 1.06×10−6 in air. The applied statistical methods, correlation matrix, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, were in agreement in the grouping of the PAHs. The groups were formed according to their chemical structure (number of rings), phase distribution, and emission sources. PAH diagnostic ratios were also calculated to evaluate the main emission sources. Diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied site. Besides that source, emissions from residential heating and oil refinery were identified to contribute to PAH levels at the respective area. Additionally, principal component regression indicated that SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and solar radiation had positive correlation with PAHs concentrations, while O3, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were negatively correlated.|
|Versão do Editor:||http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-012-1300-7|
|Aparece nas colecções:||ISEP – GRAQ – Artigos|
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|ART_KlaraSlezakova_2012_GRAQ.pdf||95,84 kB||Adobe PDF||Ver/Abrir|
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